Natural Phenomena Explained in Norse mythology
Human always question and try to find out the answer to explain what they cannot fully understand. Ancient people could not explain many natural phenomena which we can now. Accordingly, they found a way to explain them with their imagination.
In Norse mythology, lightning was not sudden electrostatic discharge occurring storm like what the science explains in this day and age.
It was because Thor wielded his hammer to create lightning. Thor's hammer - Mjolnir hammer - was among the most famous weapons in Norse mythology. Every time Thor wielded Mjolnir either to protect his people or to kill the giant, he summoned lightning.
Thor caused lightning by wielding his Mjolnir hammer
So what about thunder? Thunder goes with the lightning. But it was not explained as the sound caused by lightning.
Instead, Thor created thunder sound when he rode his chariot through the sky. Norse mythology told that whenever he crossed the sky, his chariot made the thunder sound down the Midgard.
Thor drove his chariot pulled by goats to cross the sky
Earthquake in Norse myth was caused because of Loki. When the gods bound Loki to the rock to punish him, this was when an earthquake happened in Midgard. Skadi giantess of frost placed a snake above Loki. So every time the snake dropped venom on Loki's face, he shook violently bringing earthquakes to Midgard.
But thanks to Sigyn the faithful wife of Loki, she held the venom in a bow to keep Loki safe. This meant earthquakes were not very common.
Loki and Sigyn the wife
Norse mythology also had an entertaining way to explain the day and the night.
There once were two beautiful children living in Midgard. Their father was so proud of them that he became arrogant. The gods hated this so they decided to punish the father by kidnapping his children. The gods then ordered them to pull the chariots that carried the Sun and the Moon. And from that on, they carried the Sun and the Moon the cross the sky, causing the phenomena of day and night in our planet.